The all new 6th generation – 2019 Nissan Altima Nissan, like Honda and Toyota, is definitely dedicated to the midsize sedan segment in America.
Meanwhile, other manufacturers like Ford, are giving up and we don’t expect to see the fusion on sale for very much longer. Nissan, like Honda says that they’re still dedicated to the midsize sedan. Quite simply because there are large numbers of sedans sold in America. We’re talking about millions and millions of sedans every year and that’s why Nissan has given us an all-new model.
We have the latest interpretation of Nissan’s vmotion girl, that’s what they call this large chrome, u-shape right here on the front bumper. We have LED headlamps in most trims. Now the base trim will still get halogen headlamps, but pretty much everything else gets the LEDs that we see right here with daytime running lamps trips right there. They continue the chevron theme inside the lamps that we’ve seen other nissan models and, of course our model has fog lamps down there, because we are driving the top-end trim.
Active safety technologies are all the rage these days, so we do see Nissan’s latest suite of active safety gadgets and gizmos on the Altima, but not in all trims, interestingly enough, so this is a little bit different than we see out of Honda with the accord or Tota with the Camry all models, including the base S trim, will get autonomous emergency braking with a camera based system. That’s right up here behind the windscreen, but if you want radar adaptive cruise control, then you have to work your way on up the trim letter to the middle SV trim in order to get that and the model that we’re driving has, of course, everything with blind Spot warning the auto steer system: that’s a hands-on, semi autonomous system, expanded emergency, auto brake with pedestrian detection. Thanks to the radar sensor, that’s up front and a 360-degree surround camera system. We also have reverse auto break in this model, so it helps keep you from backing over objects behind you at 192 point 9 inches long.
The new Altima is actually longer than the current Nissan Maxima and actually a little bit longer than the Honda Accord as well. This is one of the law mid-size sedans in America versus the 2018 model year. Not only is it longer, but we also have a longer wheelbase that helps give you a better highway ride and also helps give us more rear legroom than we find in the previous Altima. Although the combined legroom figure in the ultimate actually still falls a little bit below the camry and the Accord because the mid-sized sedan shopper demographic has been changing, they wanted this to look more sleek and more stylish than previous generations of the Altima.
So we get a more sloping roofline right back here, that does cut down Headroom a little bit versus the previous Altima, and then we have some design cues right here that mimic what we see in Nissan’s crossover lineup, unlike some of the competition Nissan, does not give Us full LED tail lamps and the model that we’re driving. Actually most of these elements are incandescent, including the turn signals that we see over there on that side and the backup lamps, although they are amber, which is my preference. The model that we’re driving today is a special edition model, that’s available only for the first year, so we have this add-on spoiler right here on top of the trunk lid. Now, personally, I dislike this look because it does have this little cutout right here for the Nissan logo, but otherwise I find the rear end very attractive, especially this lower bumper treatment here, which gives it a sporty ER and more aggressive.
Look than we’ve seen before. Under the hood, we find some pretty big changes for 2019. The first is a revised 2.5 liter four-cylinder engine. We’re told that about 80 % of all the parts are brand new for 2019.
This engine now produces 188 horsepower and 180 pound feet of torque. It’s about a 10 horsepower improvement over last year and we get one mile per gallon. Better fuel economy as well, ranging from 31 to 32 miles per gallon, combined, depending on the options that you select very different for this generation of the Altima, however, is that we now can mate that engine to an all-wheel-drive system and that will lower your fuel economy Down to 29 miles per gallon or 30 miles per gallon, combined again, depending on the trim level that you get, that is either identical to or actually one mile per gallon better than a Subaru Legacy. Even though the Altima is a much bigger vehicle than the Subaru, Nissan tells us that the Altima gets basically the same all-wheel-drive system, design that we see in the Nissan Rogue and their other crossovers.
So this system can fully lock it Center coupling and send 50 % of the power to the rear axle. Even when there is no wheel slip or it can actually almost come lately disconnect the rear axle sent all the power up front for better highway fuel economy. The last generation Optima had an optional v6 engine, but that’s gone for this year. Instead, we now have a 2-liter variable compression turbocharged engine.
That’s basically borrowed from the Infiniti qx50. Under this hood. It produces 248 horsepower and 280 pound-feet of torque nissan tells us that those power figures were obtained when feeding this engine premium unleaded like some of the competitors in this segment, but they also tell us that this engine will run just fine on regular unleaded. If you want, the fuel economy should not be changed thanks to the variable compression system, although overall peak output may vary just a little bit, this engine is good for 29 miles per gallon, combined just two less really than the identical 2.5 liter trims.
At this point. In time, Nissan tells us that the vc turbo is not available with all-wheel drive, but if there’s a lot of consumer interest than they may consider making this more powerful engine to all-wheel drive, that would be an interesting option because the Camry and the Accord. Of course, the two big competitors for the Altima don’t offer all-wheel drive at all front seat. Comfort has long been an Altima strong suit and that continues for 2019.
We have the latest version of Nissan’s zero gravity seats which are designed to help relieve pressure points when you’re sitting down for long periods of time, and these are definitely among the most comfortable in the mid-size segment. However, I am going to have to dock just one point off of this score and give this a nine out of ten point score, because we don’t have four-way adjustable lumbar support. It’s still just a two-way over here on top trims, we also have a power passenger seat in this top-end trim, and a really nice touch for 2019 is that all models of the Altima, including the very base trim, do get a standard power driver’s seat. Although the two-way lumbar support is not found until higher-end trims when it comes to the rear seats, I’m going to give this eight out of 10 points, but this still Falls a little bit short of some of the competition back.
Here I have about four or five inches of legroom left, which is a little less than we find in the new Honda Accord. Like many mid-size sedans Headroom is a little bit limiting back here. If I actually lean back in my seat, then my head does brush the ceiling right there, but it’s not as close as it is in some of the competition. Although it is worth noting that you will find about an inch more Headroom in the Toyota Camry.
The Honda Accord is very similar in the back. It has a lot less Headroom than the Camry does. If I move over here to the middle seat, my head is definitely touching the ceiling. I have to Crane it to one side in order to fit back here and if I move all the way over to the right side of the vehicle, where this front seat was all the way back in its tracks, you’d see, I still have about two inches Of legroom left, you might be thinking to yourself.
What’s the use of all this legroom back here, if we don’t have Headroom, that is as generous as something like. A compact crossover. Well, this versus a compact crossover. It’s actually going to be easier to put rear-facing child seats in this midsize sedan, because we have enough room between this seat back and the front seat back right there for me to drive at 6 feet tall and have a rear-facing child seat right back here and You’d have troubles doing that in a lot of current compact crossovers.
Nissan has also given us easy to access latch anchors back there. We have a fold-down center armrest with two cupholders and two USB charge: ports and air conditioning vents right here in the center console. The air conditioning vents are not standard, but the two USB ports are, although obviously not as large or quite as practical as the hatch that we find on a Nissan Rogue. One thing that I’ve always loved about Nissan sedans is the size of their trunks and the shape of their trunks as well.
This is 15 point 8 cubic feet. So it’s a little bit ahead of the toyota camry, but it also is quite deep and that allows you to put a 22 inch roller bag in that position. Right like that and still close the trunk lid – and you can’t do that in a wide variety of sedans, mid size, full-size, etc. But, interestingly enough, you can do that across the Nissan lineup.
So you can actually do this same trick with this bag in a Nissan Versa or a Nissan Sentra, or this Altima right here now. Obviously, there’s enough room to put these larger roller bags all the way back there to the back of the trunk. So I suspect this is likely going to have a one bag advantage in our 24 inch roller bag test when we can get this at home to test it. If we lift up the cargo area load floor, which is a little flippy-floppy er than some of the competition, we find the jack and a little bit of extra storage right there.
And then we actually have a spare tire under this. One of the reasons that this is so large is that the Altima was designed to accommodate a full-size spare tire in some markets. So you could actually put one back here if you wanted one in the US, as we look around the interior, keep in mind that we are in essentially the top-end trim. We don’t find a panoramic moonroof inside this generation of the Altima, which is something that we do find in some of the competitors.
We still have one that extends right over here above the driver and front-passenger heads. However, the driver and front-passenger get height, adjustable, headrests and height adjustable shoulder belts. The model that we’re in has the light tan, interior and leather, of course, since we are again in the top and trim, these seats have kind of an eccentric pattern to the perforations. In the middle section of the seat bottom and seat back cushion, but these seats are not ventilated, they are just heated in this particular trim and ventilated seats are something that you’ll find in a decent number of the competitors these days.
If we move on over to the front doors, we find a large portion of soft touch materials. Here we have a soft touch: injection molded upper section, soft touch, armrests and soft touch insert right there, although there are still large portions of the door that are hard plastics as well, especially the area right down here at the bottom of the door right around the Bottle holder, as we move on over from the doors to the dashboard, we find some imitation wood trim. This is one of the more believable wood imitations that I’ve seen. That say, it actually stacks up very well against what we see in the Honda Accord in this particular segment.
Only the new mazda6 offers Realtree inside the cabin. We have a soft touch, injection molded upper section of the dashboard and actually a soft touch, lower section, which i think is a really nice touch, because this portion of the dashboard and most of the competition is a hard plastic. The glove compartment is a bin style compartment. I don’t think you’d be able to fit a large tablet.
Computer inside, however, some of these smaller tablets or maybe large smartphones would fit in there. It is again a bin style right there, rather than a slot style glove compartment. Moving over to the center of the dashboard Nissan decides to give us a little bit more infotainment love instead of active safety systems. So this top interim has a center channel speaker up there, and then we have this standard.
Eight inch color touch screen LCD. A lot of the competition doesn’t start with an eight inch, touchscreen LCD or Android, auto or apple carplay integration, but Nissan gives us all of that standard. Even in the base S trim. The screen is mounted to the dashboard very similarly to what we see in the Honda Accord and the system is running Nissan’s latest software package there’s some physical buttons across the bottom.
We have a direct access button right there. The 360-degree camera system that this particular vehicle has in it there are a few different views and that camera system does offer moving object, detection. We also have factory nav in this particular model. This is something that you’ll find only essentially in the top and trims.
However, it is worth noting that again we have that apple, carplay and android, auto integration in all models, so we do have access to Apple Maps or, of course, the Google Maps. If you’re running the latest version of iOS 12 right here inside the cabin in all trims, including the base model, this is a feature that I really like, because it makes this dashboard screen. Look an awful lot like modern outies, with the Google satellite imagery right there below the infotainment screen. We’d find two air vents: the optional dual zone, climate control.
Again, that is not a standard feature in this particular model. This is where we find the buttons for the heated seats and the heated steering wheel right there again, no ventilated seat option beneath the climate controls. We find the USB and auxiliary inputs. There is a USB C port in all models.
We also find a USB C charge only port in the back of the car. It’s also a 12-volt power port and then a small area where you could keep your smart phone. When it’s connected to the car we have keyless entry and keyless go keyless. Go is standard on all Altima models.
Then we have a pretty traditional console shifter. We have drive down towards the back low down there and then the sport button. Oddly enough, is this very small button with the dash on it right here at the base of this particular shifter, since this is a continuously variable transmission, you can think of this as sort of low and lower, because all it really does is change. The affective ratio of the transmission and adjust the throttle response a little bit.
There are two large cupholders there. On the passenger side, electric parking, brake and auto brake hold the centre. Armrest is softly padded and it opens to reveal a moderately sized storage compartment. There’s a little divider there that you can relocate to the back.
If you want to, it should be pretty easy to store a lot of knickknacks in there. The instrument cluster should be pretty familiar to you. If you’ve driven any recent Nissan products, we have a tech arm door on the Left speedometer on the right and a large color multifunction display in the middle, what’s more interesting than that is that the color multifunction display is now standard on all trims of this vehicle. Rather than just being in top-end trims like we see in some of the other Nissan’s in America, this gives us things like turn-by-turn navigation directions.
Obviously, if you have the navigation system in the vehicle, we also have car play text readouts there for the song. That’s currently playing if you’re driving the model with the variable compression turbo, we have a boost gauge, as well as a compression gauge which is kind of an interesting touch. The steering wheel, design is basically shared with the Nissan Rogue. We don’t have any paddles on the back of this wheel, like we do find in some of the competition or like we found in the last generation Altima.
Although the last Altima had some really excellent shift, paddles on the back of the steering wheel, I never quite understood why we had them in a car with a continuously variable transmission. If we take a closer look at the controls, we find the infotainment controls over here on the left, follow them up down, track forward backward and then the back button. And then this button array controlled that multifunction display between the speedometer and the tachometer. On the right side, we have the controls for the adaptive cruise control system, that our model has dedicated phone button and voice command button, and then this button with the little circles around it, turns on and off the active safety systems in the vehicles.
If I press that on the display will that indicate that we have the forward collision warning the lane centering etcetera, enabled if you want to engage the steering, assist functionality, then there’s a different button over here to the left of the steering wheel for that the vehicle. I was able to spend most of my time with today is the model with the variable compression turbo. This is, of course, the most powerful Ultima for 2019, and it replaces the 3.5 liter v6. In our preliminary acceleration tests.
This model was a little bit slower than that outgoing engine, primarily, I think, because of the low end torque, that we find in that old, 3.5 liter v6 and the way that it worked with the continuously variable transmission. This engine has a really peppy feel at higher speeds. So, if you’re out on the highway, you have a passing situation, you need the extra oomph. This does feel really peppy, but like many vehicles with the CVT low-end performance right off, the line 0 to 15 miles an hour is a little bit slower than the Honda Accord or the tota Camry, and that’s why this model in our preliminary tests went from 0 To 60 in 5.9 seconds, that is just a little bit slower than the Camry and the Accord, but actually is faster than the Mazda 6, with their turbocharged engine.
The reason I think that this is faster 0 to 60, then the Mazda 6 is that uses an older 6-speed Automatic transmission, and this actually has a benefit from the CVT once you’re over about 20 miles an hour or so, if you’re doing simple from a stoplight Acceleration trying to get to that freeway on-ramp, for instance, this vehicle – does not imitate a stepped automatic transmission. However, once you’re going, if you’re then passing someone on the freeway, then it will actually imitate that stepped automat. The reason this transmission does, that is, that it’s better in terms of acceleration to just have the engine go to its most powerful torque and horsepower band, and just hang out there as the vehicle accelerates. It doesn’t feel quite like a vehicle with a traditional automatic, but it is going to get you zero to 60 faster.
We haven’t had a chance to do our braking tests because we aren’t at home so keep in mind that these scores are preliminary. But I’m going to estimate this is probably going to be in the same neighborhood as top-end trims of the Accord and the Camry, probably right, around 118 feet 60 miles an hour to zero. That’s because we have basically the same sized tires on this as we see in those top-end models. That is a little bit different than some of the competition, so this model has 235 with tires on it.
You will also find those wider tires on the new SR trim as well. Tire size obviously has a big impact on braking performance as well as handling performance. So keep that in mind, as we start discussing handling this doesn’t feel quite as engaging as the Camry or the Accord. But overall grip level seems to be very good.
Now we are in the top and platinum trim. So this does not have the sport tuned suspension that we find in the SR. I expect the SR with the 2.5 liter engine to be the best handling version of the ultimate it’s the lightest, and it has the wide tires that we find on this model. Nissan.
Also tells us that the SR trim of the Altima gets a slightly different tire compound to help improve handling, and we don’t see that in this top model, as far as we have been told so far, a nice touch with this vc turbo, however, is that this Is not as heavy as I had expected it to be, so the overall curb weight doesn’t increase as much as we see, for instance, going from the four-cylinder Camry to the six-cylinder Camry, that’s a bigger jump. This also weighs less than the hybrid Camry or the hybrid Accords. This is a fairly light vehicle that really does help improve the overall handling ability. This is very similar to the last generation Altima.
The last generation Altima was very good at acceleration with the v6 engine, and it actually handled very well also, but the overall feel out on the road just Falls a little bit behind some of the leaders. So we don’t have the same kind of steering feel that we find in the Mazda 6 and the overall chassis poise and balance isn’t quite to the same level as the Honda Accord, but it’s actually quite close in this generation. I would say that this beats the previous generation Camry very handily. The current generation Camry, however, has turned over a new leaf and is more engaging than you’d expect the midsize sedan category has been changing a little bit because of the changing demographic, so manufacturers are more interested in making these vehicles sporty-er a little bit more fun to Drive and that’s exactly what we see out of this generation Altima, but interestingly, some of the competition has been left behind in that demographic shift and the new targets for mid-sized sedans, something that we’ve come to expect from the Altima is a comfortable highway ride and a Comfortable driver’s seat – and that is definitely what we see in this generation Nissan – has some of the best seats in this particular segment, even though, as I said before, they’re, not quite as adjustable as some of the competition.
These are definitely the kind of seats and the kind of suspension tune. That would be great for a long highway journey. I’ve said in the past that the ultimate is my favorite rental car and that’s not really a slam on Nissan. It has to do with the overall comfort of the interior and a good set of features that we find even in those base trims.
It really makes it a great car to live with if you’re, taking a car on a long highway journey. If you’re gon na drive several hundred miles in a car, this is exactly the kind of midsize sedan you want to be in since we’re not at home. We don’t have our overall cabin noise scores just yet, but I expect that this is going to come in very similar to the current generation, Toyota Camry, so probably right, around 71 decibels, or so this cabin appears to be a little bit quieter than the previous generation. Altima, but we do get a little bit more road noise than in some of the competition.
We do have the wider tires on this vehicle, so that is important to keep in mind. But if you’re on a rougher surface, this appears to have a little bit more noise in the cabin than something like the new Accord. Fuel economy is a little bit difficult to talk about because we haven’t been driving this on our usual test course, but we have been averaging pretty decent fuel economy in this VC turbo. Most versions of the Altima should get right around 30 miles per gallon, but obviously, if you are driving the turbocharged version harder, then you’re going to get lower fuel economy.
However, this latest engine design from Nissan has done very, very well in the Infiniti qx50, which is where we first saw this engine. So I expect it to be about the same in this Nissan Altima. Overall, steady state highway fuel economy is very good, especially for this engine, and I would say it’s likely going to be matching that 2.5 liter 4 cylinder base engine in real-world driving as far as highway fuel economy goes. A nice touch with this generation of Altima.
Is that we still don’t see auto start-stop in this vehicle? Nissan tells us that it wasn’t required in order to achieve these high fuel economy numbers that we find. So if you’re worried about that kind of technology in your next new vehicle, then this could be a good alternative, because we are starting to see start/stop in a lot of mid-size sedans in America. Overall, the Altima is exactly what you’d expect out of a brand new midsize stand in America.
It looks a little sporty er than the last generation. It definitely has a sporty ER nature in terms of the overall behavior out on the road, but this is still definitely a Nissan Altima. So if the Altima called to you before, then you’re really going to like this new version. But if there were a few things that you didn’t like about the Altima before then this is probably not going to change your mind too.
Much. Consider this more of a refinement of Nissan’s philosophy when it comes to sedans, rather than a complete redesign and complete game change in this particular segment. Although that’s exactly what most midsize sedan shoppers are after and we see basically the same thing in the Camry the Accord. The Optima, the Sonata, etc.
Shoppers in this segment seem to prefer continual refinements over something. That’s a little bit out of the ordinary and now to the nitty gritty you’ll be able to get your hands on one of these very soon. Nissan tells us that they will be at dealers in October of 2018. They’ll start at twenty three thousand seven hundred fifty dollars for the 2.5 s trim that gets you that base naturally aspirated engine and actually quite a lot of feature content.
We don’t get the LED headlamps that we saw on this model, but we do get 16 inch wheels. A seven inch LCD instrument cluster that eight inch infotainment system in the dashboard, with apple carplay and android, auto keyless, go cruise control, auto front braking and that power driver’s seat as well. If you’d like your ultimate to be all-wheel drive, then you don’t have to step up to different trim levels, so you can actually stick with that base model and add all-wheel drive for $ 1,350. That does make this one of the less expensive all-wheel drive options in the midsize sedan segment or really any sedan segment period.
For that matter from there we move on up to the SR trim for twenty five thousand one hundred dollars. We still get the 2.5 liter engine, but we get a sports suspension tune which is also kind of interesting for the Altima. We get 19-inch wheels the wider 230 with tires, so the srf trim will definitely handle better than the bass. S trim the LED headlamps that we saw on this particular model and a sport themed interior.
We also get some additional safety features in that model. Blind spot warning and cross traffic detection become standard in that trim. If you’d, like your SR with a bit more oomph and you’re willing to part with 4,000 to extra dollars, then you can get the 2-liter variable compression turbo in that SR trim. You can also get all-wheel drive, so you can choose the 2.5 litre.
Front-Wheel drive for 25, 130, 10 or 50 dollars gets you. The SR trim all wheel, drive and extra four thousand dollars gets you. The 2 liter variable compression turbo. The next rung up in the ladder is the SV trim, which starts at twenty nine thousand.
Nine hundred. Thirty, and in my opinion, that is likely going to be the volume trim of the Altima, although Nissan thinks that maybe the SR will be the more popular model. Let me know what you think about that down there in the comments section below this, gives you a lot of features that we don’t find in the competition for the same price. We get the heated steering wheel, 17-inch, alloy, wheels, Auto high beams fog, lamps, heated seats, power, front seats, etc, that’d be the power passenger seat.
Of course we also get to zone climate control, which is something that we see standard in some of the competition. But this is the point where it becomes standard in the Altima and then we get all of Nissan’s latest active safety gadgets on the SP trim, adaptive cruise control, pedestrian detection, their active Lane, Keeping assistance system rear, auto brake and expanded capabilities for the front. Auto brake system and collision warning, the SV trim is again available with all-wheel drive, but it is not available with the 2-liter turbocharged engine, a smaller jump up the cost ladder gets you the SL trim. That’s when we find the leather interior as well as a few.
More premium touches the 31,000 $ 780 base. Price of the Platinum gives you the base, naturally aspirated engine. If you want the 2-liter turbo, then that bumps you up by $ 3,000, 234 780. That’s actually a slightly narrower bump than we see in the SR trim of the Altima.
You will, of course, have to wait until we can get our hands on one for complete week, so we can run this through our usual battery of tests and comparisons. But let’s dive into what we know at this point base price: this is actually right between the Accord and the Camry. So it’s definitely in that same neighborhood, although generally, we should expect this to transact little bit lower. So you might get a slightly better deal on this at the Nissan dealer, then, on the Accord at the Honda dealer, Honda and Toyota and Nissan are going after bass.
Shoppers in this segment a little bit differently, because this does not get the same. Complete suite of active safety features that we find in the Honda Accord or the Toyota Camry for that base model. Those base vehicles give you radar adaptive cruise control. We have Lane Keeping assistance etcetera.
This vehicle gives us the autonomous braking system, so it will try and prevent a front-end collision, but it doesn’t have the radar adaptive functionality until you work your way on up the trim ladder. Instead of that, we get some additional creature comforts on the inside. We get that power driver seat which we don’t find in all the competitors base models. We have standard apple, carplay and android, auto that standard eight inch, touchscreen infotainment system and the standard 7-inch instrument cluster that we don’t find in the base models of the Accord.
When choosing between these vehicles, you have to decide how much those active safety features are worth to you and if you’re looking at the base model, then one of those other alternatives might be a better option. On the other hand, if you’re looking for all-wheel drive, the ultimate is one of the only options available in America, because you’ll find all-wheel drive in this vehicle in all trim levels with that base engine, but you’ll find it in the Ford Fusion actually a little bit More expensive than this, and then we have the Subaru Legacy. The legacy is less expensive than the base price for the all-wheel-drive Altima, but we get considerably less feature content inside that cabin and the legacy is a smaller vehicle overall, so we get a less comfortable backseat. Less comfortable front seats actually as well a little bit less room inside the cabin.
So what about the 2-liter turbocharged model? Well, as we’ve come to expect out of Nissan, that is also a good value when compared against the Accord and the Camry. This 2-liter turbo is going to be about $ 1,000 less than the least expensive, 2-liter turbo that we find in the Accord and about $ 5,000 less than the least expensive v6 in the Camry lineup. Overall, acceleration performance isn’t quite where we see the Accord or the v6 Camry, but it’s actually closer than something like the Mazda 6 turbo.
The Mazda 6 turbo in case you’re wondering is right around the same price as the least expensive turbo that we find in this model and overall feature content is actually quite similar between the Altima and the Mazda as well. Now, by the time, you’ve worked your way on all the way up to the top and platinum trim. Then competition gets a little bit tricky because in the Toyota Camry or the Honda Accord, we’ll find some additional features that we don’t find at any price. In the Altima, for instance, the heads-up displays that we find in those vehicles those are pretty attractive.
We don’t find an adaptive suspension system in the Altima, but this is still going to be a little bit more comfortable and actually definitely more fuel efficient. Thanks to the overall design of this drivetrain, we get better fuel economy and relatively similar performance to what we find into the hood of the Toyota and the Honda. We also find better fuel economy. Then we find in the Subaru Legacy, even though that really has been one of Subarus dedications.